▶ Outlook Social and of Employment in the World

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Faced with the enormous challenges in the world of work, includingpersistent inequalities and exclusion, has never been more vital thannow set up a clear picture of employment and social trendsworldwide. To cope with the problems and difficulties with whichpolicies stumble, critical reflection is needed on thesuitability of our methods and concepts, and introduce innovations whenare necessary. We must ask, for example, whether the unemployment rateit is the most reliable measure of the poor functioning of the labor market. 

Haveto understand whether or not people of working age can develop allyour potential at work. Measurement also becomes crucial to assessthe growing perception that labor markets are not distributingadequately the fruits of economic growth. While the testsshow that countries are not experiencing convergence torise in employment opportunities and income increases, we needunderstand more precisely which groups of workers are winningand which ones are losing. 

The compelling answers to these questionscan contribute directly to the design of economic and social policiesthat enable sustainable and inclusive development.This report aims to rise to this challenge by offering evidence andnovel insights that enhance our understanding of how it worksof the labor market around the world, as well as presenting the mostrecent events that characterize the difficulties the market is going throughpersistently working. It presents four fundamental messages:

▶ First, it is very likely that the decline in growth projected economic and lack of inclusion will harm the capacity oflower-income countries to reduce poverty and improve living conditions work .

▶ Second, a more comprehensive measure of the underutilization ofpeople of working age reveal important gaps in access to work;the rate of «total underutilization of the labor force» tends to increase andfar exceeds that of unemployment.

▶ Third, even when people have a job, they are stillthere are significant deficiencies in the quality of work . Decent workhas to do with the adequacy of wages or earnings from workself-employed, with the right to job security and a place ofsafe and healthy work, access to social protection, opportunityto express their own opinions and concerns through a union,an employers’ organization or other representative body, as well aswith other fundamental rights such as non-discrimination. Deficits indecent work matters are especially pronounced in the economyinformal, which has the highest rates of poverty among workersand a high percentage of people who are self-employed or self-employedcontributing family workers who lack adequate protection.

▶ Fourth, significant inequalities in access to work prevailand in the quality of it . Among them are the main linessegmentation among workers, according to their geographical location(between countries and between workers in urban and rural areas), sex and age.In addition, the new ILO data on earned income (for allworkers, including the self-employed) demonstrate that the inequality ofincome is much higher than previously thought.


Inequalities and widespread decent work deficits not onlylead to economic inefficiency, but can also undermine thesocial cohesion within countries. It is significant that in 2019 therethe incidence of protests has grown in seven of the eleven subregions of the world,which indicates that dissatisfaction with the social, economic or political situationis increasing. As a whole, the whole message of this report is that thegoals of achieving full employment and raising living standards around the world areas essential today as ever. Governments, workers andEmployers must continue to prioritize labor market policiesthat pursue these objectives.

The rate and type of economic growth in the countrieslow income jeopardizes efforts to reducepoverty and improve working conditions

Across all low-income countries, the average GDP per capita in 2018 wasof around US $ 1,700 (using exchange ratesof Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) 2011), which translates into an incomeper capita daily less than $ 5. In the last eighteen years, the growthAverage per capita has been only 1.8 percent in low-income countriesand the gap with lower-middle and middle-income countries has widened.high. Regarding the type of growth, a transformation would be neededstructural, a technological update and a diversification to displace theemployment of activities with low added value to those with higher added value. WithoutHowever, progress in this area remains too limited in thelow-income countries. 

For example, between 2000 and 2018, the share of employmentin agricultural and elementary occupations it decreased only 6 percentage pointsin low-income countries (up to 69 percent), while it decreased10 percentage points (up to 49 percent) in middle-income countries-low and 15 percentage points (up to 32 percent) in income countriesmedium-high. Therefore, a key first message is that the pace and type ofgrowth not only hinders poverty reduction in low-income countriesincome, but also hamper potential job improvementsdecent.

Total underutilization of the labor forceis more than twice that of unemployment, and affects more than 470 million people worldwide …

The second key message of this report is that the mismatch between supply anddemand for labor extends well beyond 188 millionunemployed worldwide in 2019. Another 165 million people. They are employed but want to work more paid hours. Also, around120 million people are not classified as unemployed, but aremarginally linked to the labor market and could find employment ina near future. 

These people report that they are not looking for a jobalthough they would be available to work, or that they are looking for it but notthey now have the availability to accept it. In other words, morethan 470 million people worldwide lack adequate access topaid work as such or denied the opportunity to work the numberhours desired. These conclusions show the value of an understanding anda more complete measurement of underutilization in the labor market, in additionof the traditional measurement of the unemployment rate.


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And the job shortage is expectedwork continue in the near future

The global unemployment rate stood at 5.4 percent in 2019 and is forecastthat it does not change essentially in the next two years. This means that thegradual decrease in the unemployment rate observed between 2009 and 2018 seemshave stopped. In addition, the combined rate of underutilization is expected toof the workforce stabilizes slightly above 13 percent.The underlying reduction in employment growth is related to aslowdown in world economic activity, especially in the sectormanufacturer. 

Given the high level of uncertainty about howthe commercial and geopolitical tensions of the coming years will influence thetrust of businesses and consumers and, consequently, in the creationof employment, it is difficult to predict how the various measures ofunderutilization of the workforce.The recent decline in the global unemployment rate has been drivenmainly by high-income countries. Job growth inthese countries has been surprisingly energetic, considering their lowaverage level of economic growth over the last decade. 

This canserve to refute claims that technological change is leadingto massive job losses. However, job growth inhigh-income countries came at the cost of reducing the growth oflabor productivity, as jobs were created mainlyin the services sector, where the average value added per worker isrelatively low. In contrast, several middle-income countries that havesuffered economic crises in recent years continue to have unemployment rateselevated; it is unlikely that they will again achieve strong growth in theemployment in the near future, in view of the bleak prospects for theWorld economy.

Access to paid work is not a guarantee of decent work …The third key message of this report corroborates what we already know, namely,that having a paid job does not imply a guarantee of conditions ofdecent jobs or adequate income for many of the 3.3 billionemployees worldwide in 2019.

Too often, the lack ofincome or other means of financial support obliges workers toperform jobs that are informal, poorly paid, and providelittle or no access to social protection and labor rights. This isespecially the case of the 1.4 billion self-employed workers andcontributing family workers in low- and middle-income countries, whoare often informally employed, work in vulnerable conditionsand with much lower income than those who have a salaried job. 

Even inhigh-income countries, a growing number of self-employed workersown has to deal with poor working conditions, a situation thatis partly reflected in the fact that the relative difference ofIncome from the work of the latter with respect to that of wage earners. However,employees themselves are frequently subject to uncertain contracts, lowincome and informality. In total, around 2 billion workers ineveryone is informally employed, representing 61 percentpercent of the world’s workforce.


And more than 630 million workers worldwidecontinue to live in extreme or moderate poverty

Poor working conditions are also manifested in low income. On2019, more than 630 million workers worldwide – that is, almost one ofevery five, or 19 percent of all employees – haven’t earned enoughto lift themselves and their families out of extreme or moderate poverty, whichdefined as the situation in which workers earn less than $ 3.20of the United States up to date in purchasing power parity terms. Yes OKthe rate of working poor has been declining globally, progressconducted in low-income countries have been very limited. The elevatedexpected job growth in these countries, driven mainly bythe creation of low-quality jobs, means that the number ofworking poor increase in 2020-2021. As a consequence of all this,the goal of eradicating extreme poverty everywhere by 2030–Goal 1 of the Sustainable Development Goals– will be even more difficult toreach. 

Insufficient per capita economic growth is one of the reasonsfor which it has not yet been possible to tangibly improve livelihoodsof so many workers in low-income countries, who are becominglagging behind in this respect compared to middle-income countries.

The world’s labor markets are characterizeddue to great inequalities, such as the considerablegeographic disparities in access to decent work …

The fourth key message of this report is that inequalities prevailsubstantial in the labor market. To start with, the geographical locationof a person largely determines their probability of finding agood quality paid work. Low-income countries have thehigher employment-to-population ratio (68 percent), as many workersvulnerable are forced to accept any job regardless ofits quality. In fact, workers in these countries are also the mostare likely to be subjected to poor working conditions and to livepoverty (the combined rate of extreme and moderate poverty is 66 percent)hundred). 

Among the eleven subregions of the world, the highest unemployment rateoccurs in Northern Africa (12 percent) and in Central and Western Asia(9 percent), while the lowest rates are observed in Southeast Asiaand the Pacific (3 percent) and in North America (4 percent). Underemployment byinsufficient working hours affects only about 1 percent of allworkers in both North America and Eastern Europe, but it affects8 percent of employees in Latin America and the Caribbean and up to 13 percent ofpercent in low-income countries around the world.

Geographic disparities within countries are also relevant. TheNew ILO data allow studying differences in access to employmentdepending on whether you live in rural or urban areas. Globally, the employment rate ofthe working-age population living in rural areas (59 percent) ishigher than in urban areas (56 percent). On the other hand, underemployment byinsufficient working hours in rural areas (6 percent) is higher than inurban areas (4 percent). These divisions are more accentuated in the countrieslow income. 

Disparities between rural and urban areas canbe exacerbated in the future by the transformations that come with thetechnological change. In Asia and the Pacific, for example, technological progress andPolicies designed to foster innovation appear to be creating jobs andincome at a disproportionately higher level in urban areas.


Geographic disparities in labor market outcomes oftenthey incite workers to migrate in search of better opportunities. It is estimatedthat the proportion of the world’s working-age population living in areasurban has registered an increase, going from 50 percent in 2005 to 55 percentpercent in 2019, which indicates that there has been a significant migration of thecountryside to urban centers. 

This migration has been more intense in the countries ofupper-middle income, where it is estimated that two-thirds of the elderly populationfrom working in 2019 will live in urban areas, which represents an increase of more10 percentage points since 2005. Meanwhile, international migrationposes additional problems for affected migrant workers, which are veryoften do not enjoy the same rights as the national population of the country ofdestination.

And women and youth face obstaclesadditional for your participation in the labor market

Contemporary labor markets also continue to be characterized by thegender inequality. In 2019, the female participation rate in the forceof work was only 47 percent, 27 percentage points below the rateof man (74 percent). There is strong regional variation in disparitiesgender in access to employment. Gender stereotypes that emphasizein the role of women as the main caregiver and in that of men asmain breadwinner remain deeply rooted in someregions. 

The underutilization of female labor is very pronouncedin North Africa and the Arab States, affecting about 40 percentpercent of women in the expanded workforce in both subregions (incompared to just 20 and 12 percent of men, respectively).In addition to access to employment, gender disparities also persistin relation to the quality of work. This is true even in regions wherewomen have made significant strides in the labor market. In AmericaIn Latin America and the Caribbean, for example, the average level of education of women exceedscurrently that of men, but women in the subregion continue to gain17 percent less per hour worked than men.

Age is another indicative characteristic of labor market inequalities. A staggering 267 million young people ages 15-24 across the worldworld (or 22 percent of that age group) are unemployed and uneducatedor training. In addition, many of the young people who have paid jobsthey have to overcome obstacles to get a decent job. 

In Africa, for example,informality affects 95 percent of young workers. Since it isexpected to increase considerably, in absolute terms, the population of theage group 15-24 in Africa, creating a sufficient number ofdecent work opportunities is one of the most pressing issues facingface that region. In Europe and Central Asia, young workers are alsoface considerable challenges in the labor market: the quality ofjobs available to young workers has been affected by thegrowing incidence of temporary employment in that region.

✓ Imagen de Chica de negocios feliz tener conversación telefónica usando el  ordenador portátil en la oficina Fotografía de Stock

New ILO data show that participationof earned income in global GDPit is decreasing…

Finally, unequal access to decent work translates intohigh and persistent income inequalities. A key dimension ofIncome inequality is income from work, which isfundamental to the livelihood of some 3.3 billion workers inall the world. However, until recently no estimates were availablereliable and internationally comparable labor income forthe vast majority of countries due to lack of reliable income dataself-employed workers, who make up almost halfof the world’s workforce. Thanks to intensive data collection andmodeling, the ILO has been able to fill this gap and shed new lighton the main trends in income inequality.

The share of earned income – as opposed to the share ofnational income that goes to the owners of capital – decreased to the levelfrom 54 percent in 2004 to 51 percent in 2017. The decline hasbeen most pronounced in Europe and Central Asia and in America. In the countries ofhigh incomes, the decrease in the labor income of workers due toown account, compared to employees, is a key factor inthe aggregate decrease. 

Taking this factor into account, the ILO concludes thatthe share of earned income has declined more than suggested byestimates previously available. This finding is consistent with ascenario in which new forms of work are eroding power purchasing power of the self-employed.

And global income inequality is higherthan previous estimates suggest

The new data set available shows that the distribution of incomeglobal labor market is highly unequal. In 2017, a worker belonging to the deciletop of the world distribution of labor income earned an averageof US $ 7,400 per month, while a workerthe bottom decile earned only $ 22 a month (both figures in termspurchasing power parity). Although the inequality of income from work toglobal level has declined in the last fifteen years – as a result of theeconomic convergence driven by countries such as India and China, which haveenjoyed an increase in average labor income -, inequality withinof countries has stagnated over the same period.

The new data on earned income also indicates that studiesPreviously, the true extent of theinequality in low-income countries, due to their dependence onhousehold expenditures as a proxy for total income. For example, the combined share of income corresponding to the classesmedium and medium-high, which was previously thought to be similar in allcountries, it is actually much lower in low-income countries, whilethe proportion corresponding to the upper class is higher in these same countries.

Overall, global income inequality is therefore more pronounced than previously thought.

Companies reduced labor costs by 0.1% in 2020

Companies spent 0.1% less on labor costs in 2020 than in the previous year. Despite this, this is good news when compared to previous quarters. During the period in which the health crisis began, labor costs plummeted to 8.3%. The ERTEs and the exemptions in business prices set by royal decree to cushion the impact on the economy were the main causes of this decline.

The labor cost is a magnitude that is made up of the wages and contributions that companies disburse for each of their workers. It takes into account, in addition to salary, remuneration in kind, that is, maternity, health or accident insurance, among others. As for the contributions paid by each employee, there is the contribution for retirement and unemployment. Severance payments or allowances (travel expenses) are also considered in this section.

¿Qué miden los costes laborales?

During the last quarter of 2020 of the total cost per worker and month, 2,061.32 euros corresponded to salary and 634.57 euros, to mandatory Social Security contributions. In this sense, wages fell by 0.7% compared to 2019. To give it a little more perspective, the variation rate between the last four months of 2018 and that of 2019 in terms of the increase in wage spending was 1 , 76%, according to the data provided by the INE.

What do labor costs measure?

Effective working time decreased 5%
Another of the criteria that influence this statistic on labor cost is working time. The INE considers the agreed average weekly working day as the weighted result of the sum of the full-time, part-time, overtime, vacation, and medical leave hours… The resulting average is 34.5 hours per week. However, the actual working hours are less. From the sum of the agreed hours, those that are not productive for the company are subtracted. In addition to the above, neither effective hours nor holidays, paid leave, union hours are considered. To which is added the time in ERTE, which this year has been significantly increased. Of each week 1.5 hours correspond to time in ERTE. Thus the accounts, the result of effective hours is 27.9 hours.

Taking these calculations into account, the cost per effective hour worked has increased by 5.1% due to the fact that the effective hours of work have decreased by 5%.

Activities considered essential have maintained labor costs
Logically, not all activities have suffered in the same way from the health crisis and the measures implemented to try to contain the spread of the virus. The extractive industries, specifically, the supply of energy was the activity that increased their labor costs the most during 2020 with an increase of 12.4% compared to the previous year. This activity is traditionally the best paid. It was followed by financial activities that increased by 5.8% or the Public Administration, which increased its labor costs by 1.9%.

In general, according to the INE, those activities considered essential have hardly seen variations in terms of labor costs.

However, once again the hospitality industry has been the sector most affected by this health crisis. Labor costs decreased 36.2% compared to the previous year. It is also common for the hospitality industry to offer the smallest data in terms of what companies spend for the workforce. Expenditure on salaries has been reduced by 3.6%. Artistic activities have also been, although with less incidence, with a reduction of 7.8%.

In addition to this quarterly survey, the INE prepares the Annual Labor Cost Survey to see the behavior of this concept from a one-year perspective. In addition, it also draws up the Harmonized Labor Cost Index (ICLA) whose purpose is to be able to compare the labor cost per hour worked for the entire European Union.

Job-hopping: Which profiles can afford to jump from one job to another

In the ever-changing landscape of the labor market, new terms seek to define new situations. Sometimes these new words are also used to refer to old realities. Especially if they are taken from English. In this way, the new expression seems to refer to something new as well. Between both possibilities is job-hopping. Here you will find everything you need to know about this concept and which are the professions among which this phenomenon is most common.

Job-hopping: new reality or just new expression?

Job-hopping: ¿nueva realidad o solo nueva expresión?

The English expression job-hopping literally means “to jump from work”. It refers to the frequent change of company and employment. In this sense, it indicates a very old reality. The abandonment of a job for another with better conditions.

However, in the new job landscape, these changes have become more common than they were before. In fact, the term refers to the change of occupation at least once a year. And not always motivated by the improvement of working conditions or by the closure of the old company.

According to a study carried out by LinkedIn, the new phenomenon especially affects the so-called millennials. Forbes magazine points out that the new trend also includes later generations. In other words, the new reality affects those people who have not been able to consolidate their work. Those most affected by the instability of the labor market and those with the worst working conditions, according to Gallup.

The pros and cons of this trend

Although job-hopping is described as a trend full of benefits, the truth is that the reality is not so uniform. One of the things that tip the scales one way or the other is motivation. Why do you change jobs so often? It is not the same to do it out of a personal desire for growth and on your own initiative as it is driven by poor working conditions. Both cases are included in the job-hopping and for both there are advantages and disadvantages.

Advantages: It favors the adaptability of the worker, provides more experience, facilitates knowing one’s own strengths and weaknesses, and broadens the network of contacts. In this sense, it contributes to personal development.
Disadvantages: Most recruiters consider this trend as professional suicide that prevents progress in the work career. More experience is not synonymous with better. It is necessary to strengthen it. And that can only be achieved with time. In addition, the constant change from one job to another indicates a very low commitment to the company, an unstable personality, an inability to work as a team and a lack of self-improvement.
The profiles that can afford a frequent job change
Based on the pros and cons we’ve seen, not all professional profiles can afford to jump from job to job at least once a year. Positions related to the technology industry, such as software developers, can benefit from job-hopping. Working in different companies creating new programs under different perspectives and purposes allows you to acquire new knowledge. It also provides insight into recent project and time management strategies. But above all, according to Gallup, technology profiles can afford frequent company changes because their positions are in high demand and supply is still scarce. They can negotiate better working conditions, they risk less unemployment than other professionals and the companies that hire them strive to offer them good conditions.

In general, the rest of the profiles cannot afford to be job-hoppers. They are more vulnerable to the downsides of this trend. And when they are defined like this in some studies, the term hides another reality. That of job change driven by dire working conditions, not on its own initiative.

Ecommerce for entrepreneurs: Where to start?

If you are the entrepreneur or the company you work for has to launch into the virtual market, that is, the online market, after the basic notions that you are going to see here, pay attention to this keyword: segment. Yes, in the same way that you would choose the premises, the area and the decoration of the company in a way that is consistent with the product you offer, in the vast ocean of e-commerce, a successful strategy is to define the target.

That is, to whom the product or service and the marketing you define is directed. Again, the key is the customer experience.

Ecommerce for Entrepreneurs: How to Get Started

After the pandemic, there are more possibilities and facilities to sell products or services over the Internet, but the number of competitors also grows exponentially. The first steps to «walk» on these waters are to choose a suitable and trustworthy platform, train yourself if you need digital tools, especially in terms of SEO, and offer secure transactions.

Slowly. As the expected amount of ecommerce sales has doubled, various platforms have also emerged, very intuitive and easy to use, from which you have to choose. The most used is Shopify, a monthly payment SaaS (Software as a Service), mainly because it requires little investment in technology, so you can immediately expose the catalog and start billing. Whichever option you choose, remember that technology has to adapt to your business needs and not the other way around.

Unlike when you try to open a traditional store, in ecommerce you will not find the licensing barriers or legal conditions to develop the project. However, you will have to solve your own questions such as positioning the content by working on SEO or guaranteeing the confidentiality of customer data and their financial security when buying your products or services.

Ecommerce for entrepreneurs

Ecommerce for Entrepreneurs: How to Get Started

Keys to consolidate ecommerce
As you know, collecting the customer’s experience will give you the clues you need to improve your project. And now you are not limited only to the environment of a possible physical store, but potential customers are national and international. The advantage is that you do not have to risk buying previously from suppliers or committing a stock, because in ecommerce you can buy the inventory after making the sale. This method is known as dropshipping.

The question to survive as a small business or entrepreneur is to work in omnichannel, that is, not limit yourself to e-commerce. Combine different media: mailing, products in a physical store or hybrid campaigns. Similarly, don’t limit yourself to online providers, you can also work with physical services. As always: the best product at the best price.

Just keep in mind that by selling digital products, like an e-book or downloadable music, you save on distribution logistics. In addition to the waiting time for receipt by the client. But but you have to invest in security and control of transactions. You will no longer be able to inventory the stock in the warehouse, as there are no physical items to review. One download does not alter the stock.

Finally, always remember to reserve a space for customers to leave comments. Encouraging participation and facilitating contact, with a contact telephone number, a customer chat or the company’s email, are trustworthy creators that will help position your brand.

How long do I have to eat at work?

40% of employees work a split shift according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene (INSHT). That is to say, they do a section of the day in the morning, until approximately two in the afternoon and resume the task at four until seven or even beyond. In between they have free time to eat at work.

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The hours available between morning and afternoon are usually set by agreement or, in other cases, from the company itself. These hours are not counted as time worked so employees can dispose of it as they want. In those two hours in between, there are those who take the opportunity to do a little sport, go shopping or simply eat and go for a walk. It all depends on how long it takes you to have lunch.

Time to eat on split day

The split day with a long break in between is one of the peculiarities of the Spanish day. During the 1960s it was quite common to have two jobs. One in the morning and one in the afternoon. So that there was time to eat and rest a little before going to work for the second job at noon, two hours or more were used. This dynamic has not disappeared and there are still many companies that establish a split shift between the morning and afternoon hours with a long time in between, two hours many times, which excessively lengthens the end of the day.

The demand for more rational hours that allow reconciliation with personal life is shared by more and more people and has even been brought to parliament on several occasions promoted by the ARHOE (Association for the Rationalization of Spanish Hours). Making days more compatible with parenting, training or personal enjoyment involves shortening the time for lunch to go out before work.

I have the right to eat at work


But as long as things continue as they have been, going to the tupper with the food brought from home or going to a nearby restaurant for the daily menu will be the usual thing in the Spanish workweek. For this, the company will have to facilitate that employees can make the most of the time between morning and afternoon.

At this point, it should be noted that if between the morning and afternoon periods the staff cannot have two real hours for lunch due to the distance to a place where they can eat, the company will have to set up a dining room and what is necessary to to be able to do it (tables, chairs, microwaves, refrigerators, water …).

The company must prepare a space if requested by at least half the workers. Also if the number of workers exceeds fifty and, if there are fewer, the right will not be limited but the space that is dedicated will have to be proportional to the number of employees. This was established by law in the first half of the last century.

This law dates from 1938 but in 2011 the Supreme Court ratified it considering that the need to have a space to eat in the workplace is still in force.

Time to eat in the Workers’ Statute

The establishment of rest time during a day is set by occupational health criteria and is normally also detailed in the agreement. In this way, the minimum recommended in the Workers’ Statute is improved. In the ET, reference is made to the fact that in the days that exceed six continuous hours of work, a break of at least fifteen minutes will be enjoyed. There are people who take advantage of this time to have a snack and eat when they get home. It is usually in continuous days.

The maximum labor law also specifies that, in the case of those under eighteen years of age, this break must be extended to thirty minutes provided that the continuous working day exceeds four and a half hours.

Finally, it establishes that this time must be effective working time if the agreement so contemplates it.

Regarding split days, the Workers’ Statute does not specify whether there should be a specific time between one party or another. But the Supreme Court did guarantee it when it ratified the 1938 law, as we have already seen.

Missing work without justification?

Sometimes people need time to resolve an issue or simply to rest from a period of high stress or workload. The normal thing is that in the private business sphere the possibility of requesting a day for one’s own business is not contemplated. And in many companies the opportunities to miss work are very rare. In these circumstances some employees choose to lie. But this can have consequences. Keep reading to know more.

Why are you missing work?

Unfortunately, most of the Spanish private companies contemplate a very limited number of possibilities to be able to miss work. In general, all of them tend to cover only the cases contemplated in the Workers’ Statute. It is the minimum general standard. This means that, for example, to be able to attend a medical appointment only a few hours are allowed – per year! If we take into account that most of the workers have split days, it turns out that they can only have a medical appointment on vacation.

The most common reasons for missing work

Some people choose to find excuses to miss work. Among the most common circumstances to do so are a terrible employment situation, difficulties in conciliation and lack of responsibility on the part of the worker.

Employment situation. From an excessive workload without paying correctly to a toxic environment in the position. Also stop “heating the chair” to leave before the rest of the classmates, even if they work overtime out of habit. And even if the job is done. Sometimes absences become the only resource for the worker to recover the extra time that the company has required him to dedicate.

Family conciliation. For some years the law has tried to improve the possibilities of workers to be able to reconcile their work with their family life. But in most cases this is only achieved with a reduction in working hours. Which also implies a salary reduction. And not everyone can afford it. Time to take care of your children after school or take your parents to the doctor fall into this category.

Lack of responsibility. It is related to the first point, the situation in the workplace. The worse the conditions of the position, the less involvement of the worker with the company. For this reason, in some cases, employees do not go to work to dedicate themselves to their own leisure. From playing video games to going to a festival. Or even have a hangover. In general, this is usually the reason why people do not go to work on Monday or Friday. And not coming these days sets off all the alarms.

Los motivos más frecuentes para faltar al trabajo

Justify absences from work

Sometimes the reason for missing work is so serious that it is justified on its own. A close relative has had an accident and they call you from the hospital, or a relative has died, or you are seriously ill. The problem is that in all cases, the law provides that this type of offense is justified and not in all cases it can be done.

For example, your older uncle who has no other family than you has had a heart attack. As you are not related by direct line, you cannot justify your absence, unless the company understands your special circumstances. And that you can negotiate to recover that time.

The problem is that some people use such serious arguments as excuses. In any case, not justifying the absence from work can have consequences. From a reduction in salary according to the time that the dismissal has been missed, through a sanction.

Transfer or transfer, what difference is there?

Labor rights labor market working hours

Mobility in the workplace is an increasingly present reality within the labor market. In some areas, people can occupy the same position throughout their lives. However, more and more companies choose to relocate their staff in other sectors. Within this movement of workers, within the framework of an organization are the transfer and transfer. If you are not sure what each one refers to, keep reading to clear all your doubts.

What is job transfer

Qué es la transferencia del puesto de trabajo

The transfer consists of changing from one position to another with the same job commitment. The tasks will be different, but the level of responsibility, salary, and promotion opportunities will be the same. The transfer can be requested by the worker or imposed by the company.

Imposed by the company. It is a resource aimed at the internal reorganization of the company. In a restructuring process, certain tasks can become obsolete or assign them a lower workload. On the contrary, other occupations acquire greater importance and therefore need to be carried out by a greater number of employees. In this way, workers in the less competitive sections go on to perform tasks in booming sections.
Requested by the worker. The reasons why an employee requests a transfer are various. Among them are the change of residence, family conciliation, being close to his partner or even friction with colleagues. The company responds to these needs in order not to lose a worker, maintain productivity and avoid internal conflicts.

An employee moves from his job when he moves to a different one. In this sense it is the same concept as the transfer. The fundamental difference is that in the case of transfer, the decision is imposed by the employer for economic, technical, production or organizational reasons.

This means that it is a mandatory mobility determined by any manager superior to the worker and processed by HR. The transfer can involve the change of work center, can be done for a specific or indefinite period and can be individual or collective. As a decision imposed by the company, it must be reasoned and recognized by the worker.

Transfers are regulated by articles 39 and 40 of the Workers’ Statute. There are two main types:

Geographical mobility.

The change of job entails the change of place of residence. It may be accompanied by additional financial benefits to facilitate adaptation to the new context. As this is a change that affects all areas of the employee’s life, the company must document the reasons behind it. Otherwise, the transfer can be challenged through the courts.


Functional mobility. It implies a change in the tasks specified in the employment contract. The new functions must be in accordance with the training of the employee and respect his dignity. This type of transfer can be imposed as a sanction or for organizational reasons during a certain period of time.


In both cases, if the new tasks involve occupying a higher category position, the remuneration must be in accordance with the new responsibilities. If that new higher task is exercised for more than six months in a year or for more than eight months in two years, the worker may demand to stay at the new level. On the contrary, if the employee has to perform inferior functions, his original salary cannot be modified.

Requirements to collect unemployment

If you have become unemployed, it is not essential that you have been working for a year to collect unemployment assistance. On this occasion we will talk about what you will charge if you lose your job and what are the requirements to collect unemployment while you dedicate yourself to find a new job.

Requirements to collect unemployment benefits or collect unemployment benefits

These are the requirements that you are asked to meet when receiving State unemployment assistance:

  • Have contributed to Social Security. In the following sections we explain this point in more detail.
  • Register as a job seeker. It is not enough to be unemployed, you have to register as a plaintiff at your SEPE office.
  • Sign the activity commitment. That is, you commit to an active job search.
  • Not having income that contributes more than 75% of the monthly income minimum interprofessional wage (SMI). This amount is calculated without counting the proportional part of the two extraordinary payments.
  • Not having fulfilled the retirement age.

All these requirements must be fulfilled throughout the service.

And don’t forget seal the strike. Remember you can do it on-line. Or, for example, if you invoice a job, notify your SEPE office (formerly INEM) so that they take it into account and readjust the benefit for the following month.

Also notify if you do a part-time job (you will have to show the contract). On the other hand, go to the subpoenas that come from your office with regard to participating in specific actions of motivation, information, orientation, training, retraining or professional insertion to improve your employability.

Requirements to request unemployment

If you have worked (and contributed) less than a year, you can request unemployment benefit

One of the issues that will make the months you are entitled to unemployment benefit vary is if you have family charges. Family responsibilities assume that you are dependent on children under 26 years of age, a spouse or a person with a disability. That they are in your charge means (in the sense that matters here) that they depend financially on you. That is, they should not receive income that exceeds 75% of the SMI. The total sum of money that comes into the house each month distributed among each member of the family must not exceed this percentage of the SMI.

  • If you have family dependents, you are asked to have contributed to Social Security during at least 3 months. You will have the right to collect the subsidy for as many months as you have contributed: 3 if you contributed 3, 4 if 4 and 5 if 5. From 6 months, you will have the right to collect the aid for 21 months.
  • In case of not having family responsibilities, you are asked to have contributed at least 6 months. The aid will last for 6 months.

If you have worked (and contributed) for more than a year, what else is required of you to collect unemployment benefits?

You will have a series of conditions added to the common requirements to meet to collect unemployment benefit:

  • You must have contributed 360 days within the 6 years prior to being unemployed.
  • In addition to signing the activity commitment, you will have to accept a proper placement. If employment services send you a vacancy, you have to apply. Otherwise, you can be penalized and lose your unemployment benefit.
  • You cannot be working as a salaried employee or as a full-time self-employed person, except for compatibility established by an employment promotion program.
  • You cannot be collecting a Social Security pension incompatible with work.

The duration of the benefit will depend on the time you have contributed in the last 6 years, unless it has been taken into account for a previous benefit. You can check the table on the SEPE website.

Finally, some good news for those who have worked part time: each day worked is counted as a paid day. That is to say, the type of working day that you fulfilled if you are in this case does not affect the time that you will be able to collect unemployment.

Reskilling and upskilling in the age of digital transformation

An increasing number of organizations coincide in pointing out that labor markets cannot fill at the rate needed those positions that drive, lead and support digital transformation. New times require skills that companies still they do not find in sufficient quantity among the workforce. To solve these deficiencies, many are already resorting to implementing training processes of upskilling Y reskilling in their internal strategies.

The pressing need to upgrade skills

From the World Economic Forum, the OECD or the European Commission prepares reports and studies that point out what kind of knowledge are most sought after by companies. The vast majority within the technological area. But not only are new technical knowledge required in all areas, but also a type of fundamental competences to face these tasks such as resilience, communication and others. softskills.

This reflection is directed, to a large extent, towards the educational systems that are held responsible for not being able to to equip future workers with the fundamental skills to face this new technological era. Among others, critical thinking and digital skills, as noted in the WEF report, The Global Competitiveness Report.

Lifelong learning

So, if you don’t learn during childhood, you have to do it when you grow up. Everything is in the hands of the life long learning, of lifelong learning. The challenges we are facing as a result of a super connected world require the continuous updating of knowledge and skills. Postgraduate studies are multiplying, both in public and private universities, aimed at compensating for this lack of technological skills and satisfy the demands in the companies. Professionals come to update their knowledge thanks to this type of training when their careers begin to stagnate after a few years of experience.

For their part, companies are choosing to incorporate these new skills thanks to internal training processes directed in two directions: specialization and recycling, which in English is called upskilling and reskilling.

The processes of updating skills, specialization, is what is included under the name of upskilling. But if your specific or technical knowledge no longer has a place, due to the effect of digitization, for example professional recycling, reskilling, will transform your profile to adjust it to the performance of positions that are adapted to the new needs.

Lifelong learning

The advantages of reskilling Y upskilling

It is companies that incorporate these processes because they understand that investment in Updating your employees’ knowledge brings more benefits what costs. In addition, the benefits affect both your reputation as employers: makes them more attractive when it comes to incorporating talent. How they help strengthen your bond with your employees and prevent its departure: the dreaded talent drain.

Another advantage that businesses value over adjusting the skills of their own workers is that the inconvenience derived from adaptation is reduced to the position that the new employees carry. If your company trains you, you have already incorporated all the corporate culture acquired during your career in it. Therefore, it is also a plus point in terms of stability.

Can they record me at work without my consent?

The General Data Protection Regulation (RGPD) and the Personal Data Protection Law (LOPDGDD) include the regulations related to video surveillance at work. They can record you, but first they will have to expressly notify you that there is a camera that is going to collect your image. Yes indeed, does not require your express consent if you are caught doing something you should not. On the other hand, they can record you at your post and use the recording for a dismissal from.

Can I be fired if I am recorded committing an illegal act?

A recording of the worker cannot be accepted as proof of dismissal if he was not informed that he was being recorded. Now, articles 22 and 89 of the LOPDGDD regulate an exception in the event that the worker is caught committing an illegal act. Only if there is a visible sign that there are video surveillance cameras would it be admissible to record one of them as proof of this act.

What the regulations for an illegal act refer to is committing a crime, such as taking money from the company’s cash register. But it does not necessarily have to be a crime, it can also be the failure to comply with the labor obligations agreed by contract.

In short, what you have to keep in mind is that, if it is an illegal act, the employer will require less care. In other words, the current regulations lower the information requirement with respect to previous regulations. It will be enough that information is placed in a «sufficiently visible» place in the workplace that identifies «the existence of the treatment, the identity of the person in charge and the possibility of exercising the rights provided», as set out in article 22.4 of the LOPDGDD.

ask for my consent to be recorded while working

Are they required to ask for my consent to be recorded while I work?

Yes, current legislation indicates that there must be express consent if the recording is to be used later as a test. It can be in the form of clause within the employment contract, so always read this document carefully. If you committed any act that would lead to a proper dismissal, the LOPDGDD would not protect you. However, this condition conflicts with that of only requiring an informational poster in the event of an illegal act. In practice, many judgments have concluded that express consent prevails. Each worker must personally receive this information.

In conclusion, if you recorded in order to control that workers are not absent, that they comply with a schedule or with their obligations, you would have to expressly notify it. That is, it can be recorded with cameras at work for security or staff control reasons. But, faced with a proper dismissal, you have to demonstrate that the employee was fully aware of this measure.

Of course, there is an important exception, they cannot record you as long as you work even if they inform you of it. The recordings to which the Law refers are always in public spaces. The regulations are very clear regarding workers who are employed in a house: «Image processing carried out by a natural person in his own home is considered excluded from these requirements.»

Another important caveat included in the LOPDGDD is that it may not be recorded in places of rest of the employed persons. For example, there may not be cameras in changing rooms, dining rooms, or recreation areas within company premises.

Finally, please note that, according to the GDPR, recordings can only be stored for one month.

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